What are Surgical Sutures?
Surgical sutures are medical devices that hold body tissues together after injury or surgery. Applications usually involve the use of needles with a certain length of thread. In its thousands of years of history, many different shapes, sizes, and thread materials have been developed. Surgeons, physicians, dentists, podiatrists, ophthalmologists, registered nurses, and other trained nurses, doctors, clinical pharmacists, and veterinarians are usually engaged in suture work. The surgical knot is used to fix the future.
If textile materials are to be accepted by the human body, biocompatibility is crucial. The following four key factors will determine how the human body responds to implants:
- The most important factor is porosity, which determines the rate of growth and encapsulation of human tissues.
- Smaller round fibers are better wrapped by human tissues than larger fibers with irregular intersections
- Fiber polymers must not release toxic substances, and fibers should be protected from surface contamination such as lubricants and sizing agents.
- This feature will affect the success of the implant.
Surgical suture classification
Surgical sutures can be classified in several different ways. First, the material of the suture material is classified into absorbable suture or non-absorbable suture. Enzymes in human tissues can naturally digest absorbable sutures, which is why doctors do not need to remove them. However, non-absorbable sutures are usually removed a few days after surgery. Depending on the type of surgery the patient has undergone, they may also stay in the body permanently.
Sutures are also classified according to the actual structure of the suture material. For example, monofilament sutures include single threads that allow the suture to pass through tissue easily. In contrast, braided threads consist of many small threads woven together. Although safer, the braided thread also increases the possibility of infection.
Finally, sutures can also be classified as synthetic or natural materials, but since all suture materials have been sterilized, there is little difference. Now let us check the type of suture in detail.
The classification method of absorbable sutures is as follows:
Catgut suture is a natural monofilament absorbable suture with good tensile strength. The suture retains the best strength to hold the tissue together. Catgut is a smooth and flexible suture with a good knotting effect, and depending on its size, it disappears completely between 60 to 120 days. The final disintegration of the suture allows it to be quickly used in healing tissue.
Polydioxanone suture is a synthetic monofilament suture used to repair various soft tissue wounds and close the abdomen. Surgeons also use this suture during pediatric heart surgery.
Polycaprolactone surgical sutures are synthetic monofilament sutures, usually used to repair soft tissues. It is usually used to close the subcutaneous dermis of the patient’s face and used as a bandage. These sutures promote aesthetic healing without scars. Suture materials are used in vascular anastomosis operations that connect blood vessels.
Polyglactin surgical suture includes synthetic braid, which can repair face and hand lacerations well, and is the best choice for general soft tissue approach. Like the Poliglecaprone suture, this suture is also used for vascular anastomoses. Throughout the absorption process, polyglacial suture usually has a mild tissue response, but since the absorption level of the catgut is more predictable, it is a better choice for catgut suture. Again, this suture has almost no tissue response.
When talking about the types and uses of surgical sutures, we must also mention non-absorbable sutures. These sutures are made of special silk threads or synthetic fibers, such as polyester, polypropylene, or nylon. Non-absorbable sutures may or may not include coatings that enhance their performance characteristics and are commonly used to close skin wounds. The sutures are removed after a few weeks.
These surgical sutures are often used in cardiac surgery, such as vascular anastomosis (due to the constant movement and pressure of the heart). Non-absorbable sutures usually cause fewer scars because they cause a much lower level of the immune response, which is why they can also be used in surgical procedures with significant cosmetic effects. Depending on the strength of the wound, these sutures can be left permanently or they can be removed after a while.
With Meril endoscopic surgery, surgeons can provide patients with a one-stop solution for a variety of products including various absorbable and non-absorbable sutures. We also provide tissue sealants, absorbable hemostatic agents, hernia repair, and other latest equipment.
How to Use Surgical Sutures
Wounds before and after stitching. The closure combines five simple interrupted sutures and a vertical mattress suture (center) at the top of the wound.
Suture two surgical wounds with 11 simple stitches
There are many different technologies. The most common is a simple interrupted stitch. It is indeed the simplest method of execution and is called “intermittent” because the suture is cut between each stitch. The vertical and horizontal mattress stitches are also interrupted, but are more complex and specifically used to turn the skin and distribute tension. Continuous or continuous stitches are faster, but if you only cut the suture into one place, it may fail. In some respects, the continuous lock pin is a safer version. Brooch pin and corner pin are deformations of horizontal mattresses.
Other stitching or stitching techniques include:
- Purse-string suture, a continuous round inverted suture used to fix the edges of surgical or traumatic wounds.
- Figure 8 pin
- Hypodermic needle. The use of continuous subcutaneous sutures can effectively reduce superficial wounds. Compared with other suture methods, it is not clear whether subcutaneous sutures can reduce the infection rate of the surgical site.
- In general surgery, is subcutaneous closure better than no subcutaneous closure?
Meril endoscopic surgery products are used in more than 100 countries/regions around the world. At Meril Academy, we also provide practical training courses for aspiring surgeons around the world. When choosing the type of additional thread and material, they also considered several factors, including the patient’s personal preferences, tissue type, and infection risk.