Elimination and Substitution are better than Personal Protective Equipment because it is a measure on the Hierarchy of Controls that physically removes the hazard. If does effectively would remove the need for PPE. Example: A room that contains chemicals that is hazardous to workers, by removing the ability for workers to enter that space would be an example of eliminating that hazard.
Substitution is more effective than using PPE because it too is higher on the Hierarchy of Control because it involves replacing a hazardous material or chemical with something less or not hazardous to humans or the environment. Replacing lead in paints with a compound that is non-hazardous to growing children is an example of Substitution.
According to the American Optometric Association1 and other authorities cite NIOSH as the source for the estimate that every day, approximately 2,000 U.S. workers suffer job-related eye injuries that require medical treatment. As many as 90 percent of the injuries could be prevented, or made less severe, by wearing the right eye protection. Workers in the manufacturing, construction, and trade industries and those in production; installation, maintenance, and repair; construction and extraction; and service occupations were most at risk of incurring an eye injury.
It is important that the data is documented on a hazard assessment because it provides information can be used to determine follow-up check to ensure recommended safety measures have been made and give the organizations enough time to make the recommended fixes. Also, it is important to note that if an injury did occur after that assessment was made, and substantial time as a pass to remedy the hazard after it was identified. It can be used to hold the organization liable on behalf of the worker.
Accidental needle-stick injuries (NSIs) are a hazard for health-care workers and general public health. Orthopedic surgeons may be more prone to NSIs due to the prevalence of bone spikes in the use of sharp orthopedic instruments such as drills, saws, and wires. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the orthopedic wards of Melaka General Hospital.
The prevalence of NSIs was 32 (20.9%) and the majority of it occurred during assisting in operation theatre 13(37.4%). Among the six (18.8%) were specialists, 12(37.5%) medical officers, 10 (31.2%) house officer,s and four staff nurses (12.5%). The data may be slightly different for the healthcare workers in the USA, however, the same risks are present.
Of the Needle Stick injured workers, 74.8% were nurses. Of the total injuries reported, the most common were from the syringe needle unit. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that the strongest risk factor was having more than 10 years or more of work in health services. Another significantly related factor was being over 39 years old.
It would seem as experience increased comfortability level healthcare worker are prone to treat and handle needles with less caution thus causing an increased number of needle sticks with the older population of healthcare workers.