Different types of injury

Different types of injury

Different types of injury


Different types of injury

The basic principle of different types of injury


Sports injuries tend to fall into two categories:

• Soft tissue damage (except bones)

• Bone injury, which means that the bone is broken (fracture) or the bone is not in its normal alignment (dislocation).


To understand how bones and soft tissues (including skin, muscles, tendons, cartilage, and ligaments) participate in different types of injury, you need to understand how these structures are anatomically related to each other. The easiest way is to study typical joints, which are where many sports & different types of injury occur. The joints are fragile because although they can move flexibly, they are also prone to twisting and spraining.

In many activities, the first bear weight (for example, knees in skiing) and/or exercise repeatedly.

Every joint is different, but the general principles of how bones, cartilage, tendons, etc. are related to each other remain the same.

A joint is where two bones meet. The conflicting bone ends are protected by cartilage. The joints are enclosed in the joint capsule (composed of fibrous tissue). The innermost surface of the joint capsule is called the synovial membrane lining. This creates a vicious fluid (synovial fluid), which lubricates the bone surface inside the capsule.
Muscles are attached to bones through tendons. A ligament is a support band that connects one bone to another bone and helps keep the joint stable. Some joints have small, thin pockets called bursae, which enhance the protection of the joints.


The actual joints are more complicated than this. For example, the knee joint is actually a combination of three independent joints and contains specially made tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. Like any synovial joint, the ends of the kneecap are covered by white, smooth articular cartilage. Second, it is unusual for the knee to have a pair of shock-absorbing meniscus pads between the bones. This cartilage is torn and sometimes needs repair or replacement. Joints must be complex structures to perform the various movements required, but this also means that the possibility of errors is high.


Soft tissue injury



The skin may be cut or burned (through friction or sun exposure). Keep in mind that scratches and scratches that appear on the sports field are likely to be infected, so always wash them thoroughly before dressing. Ensure that the tetanus vaccination is always up to date. There is a layer of fat under the skin. If the blood vessels in it are damaged, blood will penetrate into the tissues and form the characteristic purple of bruises.

Swelling and pain are the body’s natural defense mechanisms to fix the injured area. Tissue damage is usually accompanied by some bleeding, and the damage often triggers the production of tissue fluid, leading to swelling. The damaged and swollen tissue irritates the nerve endings in the area, causing pain. In addition, swelling can harden the injured area, making it impossible for you to use it. In this way, the repair process can begin to work and any further damage can be avoided.

Bleeding and tissue fluid make the area feel warm and red-in other words, it becomes inflamed. The main purpose of soft tissue injury treatment is to reduce inflammation, thereby speeding up recovery.




Muscle injuries & different types of injury can produce a variety of symptoms, from “light entanglement” during exercise (depending on the passage of time) to severe pain and fear every time a particular exercise or movement is performed. Pulling or straining means that some muscle fibers have been torn. The tear or rupture is more serious and is usually caused by a direct blow (such as a kick on the thigh). There may be bleeding, swelling, and even “dead legs” due to nerve pressure. If you have such severe symptoms, you should see a doctor on the day of the injury.

Putting an ice pack on the different types of injury area will first relieve the pain and swelling, then you will need to tie the bandage and go to the local emergency room if necessary.

Infection after muscle injury is rare, but if the bleeding is not fully resolved, cysts sometimes form in the muscle. These require medical treatment. A more common problem is muscle shortening due to the formation of fibrous tissue that is less elastic than the muscle fibers themselves. This is why any rehabilitation after a muscle injury must be stretched to restore length and flexibility.

Injuries to the thigh muscles must be treated specially, otherwise, you may need to rest for a long time or undergo surgery. Massaging thigh muscle injuries is not a good idea, because in some cases, this can increase the size of blood clots inside. This may harden and calcify, and even form abnormal bone masses.

Muscle part


Tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bursa of fabric

Tendons become inflamed by overuse:

a disease called tendinitis. The tendon becomes swollen, red, tender, and injured when moving. If you perform a sport or action regularly and vigorously, you are most likely to develop tendinitis: for example, a runner injured in the tendon of the Achilles tendon and an athlete with a racket in the wrist. In addition to rest, treatment usually includes some changes in the way the tendon moves: for example, wearing a heel pad in Achilles tendinitis. When the pain is severe, the use of non-steroidal analgesics may also help. If the problem is not resolved, local anesthetics and hydrocortisone may be injected into the surface of the tendon, or the tendon may require decompression surgery.

The tendon can also be torn partially or completely. A local tear can cause significant pain and discomfort, and if it tears completely, you may feel a gap between the tendons.


The ligaments may stretch, causing some or all of the tears. The term sprain usually applies to minor ligament tears. These injuries are caused by twisting or tightening of the affected joint. A complete tear can cause excessive joint pain, swelling, bruising, or abnormal movement.

If continuous pressure is applied, it may cause inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius, which may tear the cartilage in more severe joint damage. The knee joint consists of the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus-the specially shaped cartilage at the tip of the tibia (thigh bone)-which can be torn by the rapid twisting motion of the knee. This is a common football injury.

Unless there is a minor injury, always see a doctor, but first aid should follow the so-called RICE principle.

Treating soft tissue injuries: the “rice” principle


R = relative rest

Different types of injury may be serious, so you may need to rest completely, but usually, you only need to limit your activities, reduce training, or change to another exercise. This is the meaning of relative rest, which allows you to stay healthy while the injury is healing.


I = apply ice to the injured area

Ice cools the blood vessels under the skin and constricts them, reducing the amount of bleeding and bruising. It also has an anesthetic effect, so it can relieve pain. When applying ice, be careful not to burn your skin directly for too long. Wrap the ice in flannel or use an appropriate ice pack.

Ice is an important part of the treatment of acute injury, but do not use ice packs for more than 24 to 48 hours. During this period, ice packs should be used intermittently until the initial swelling disappears. Once the most severe symptoms disappear (usually after a week or so), there will be many useful over-the-counter heat treatments to heal the affected area. If you get injured repeatedly, you can also use them as part of the warm-up before the game.


C = compression bandage

This is particularly effective in limb injuries. After applying the ice pack to the affected area several times for 10 to 30 minutes, use a bandage as much as possible. This will also help prevent further bleeding and swelling.

E = elevation

Elevating the injured area can drain tissue fluid, which will also help reduce the size of swelling, thereby reducing pain.


Bone injury


Fractures and joint dislocations can be serious and should be treated by a doctor in the emergency department. Bone damage usually causes many soft tissue injuries, muscle bleeding, swelling, and pain. You may feel dizzy or dizzy, pain, or blood loss.

In some fractures, the skin is broken off by the jagged ends of the broken bone, although sometimes you only see the punctured wound. When this happens, the infection may enter the bones, so it must always be considered a particularly serious injury.

The joint can simply be dislocated, or broken and dislocated. A dislocated joint is usually very painful, looks strange, and the affected limb cannot hang normally because you cannot move it normally. All dislocations require urgent attention in accidents and emergencies because the sooner they are returned, the better.

First aid for bone injuries


If the patient has severe pain, the fastest way to relieve the pain is to clamp the wound. This may involve using a simple emergency splint or clamping the injured leg to an uninjured finger, or clamping the injured finger to a nearby finger (partner strapping). Using a sling or bandage can make the injured arm more comfortable. In this case, ask the person the most comfortable position, and then try to fix the limbs in that position. Do not let the person eat or drink, in case you need anesthesia later.


In the event of an accident or emergency, the injured will be X-rayed. Certain fractures can be “reduced” using local anesthesia techniques and sedatives without surgery. Other fractures require “internal fixation”-that is, they require metal plates and screws to hold the bones in place during the healing process. Need to take action. Do not use general anesthetics until four hours after the last drink and six hours after the last meal, because vomiting and choking under anesthetics are dangerous.

Most of the reduced fractures are fixed with a plaster cast to immobilize the limb. The actors are expected to be worn for about six weeks, but the exact time varies from person to person.


Skin injuries and problems

These are caused by shear forces, such as the movement of your feet in training shoes, which is one of the reasons why you should always wear shoes that fit your feet and thick socks. If possible, apply petroleum jelly to the skin to prevent friction. If there are indeed blisters, puncture with a sterile needle and cover with dressing to prevent further damage.



Wash cracked, frosted skin with soap and water or antiseptic to remove dirt, then cover with a sterile dressing. Cuts are injuries caused by sharp edges, such as broken glass or blades, while cuts are jagged cuts usually caused by blunt objects. Cover the wound with a sterile dressing and apply pressure to stop bleeding. If the cut or cut is small, it can be cleaned with soap and water, but more serious cuts or cuts and cuts or cuts that may contain foreign objects or cannot stop bleeding require a doctor’s examination.

This is caused by bleeding under the skin. Very extensive bruises are called hematomas. A hematoma is a collection of blood in space, for example, blood in the quadriceps muscles on the thighs or in the soft tissues around the eyes (black eyes) or under the skin of the tibia. Hematomas can also occur in joints and in the chest, abdomen, or skull cavity. Minor scratches require almost no other treatment except cooling. Hematoma may require medical care, so it is wise to go to the emergency department of the hospital. A hematoma usually occurs in large muscle groups, especially the quadriceps of the thigh. Sometimes the hematoma may indeed be very large, and it may be necessary to accelerate the healing by suction under aseptic conditions. This usually requires local anesthesia so that a large diameter needle can be inserted to draw blood into the syringe.



With the exception of motorsports, burns are usually caused by friction rather than physical heat. Wrestlers and judo practitioners may be burned by mats (grazing), and turf burns are related to playing on artificial turf. Burns can also be caused by repeated rubbing of one body part against another part (such as the inner thigh of a runner) or clothing (a burn of the nipple of a female runner). Covering the area with petroleum jelly can prevent this.
Other burns should be immediately cooled with tap water or ice packs, usually without other treatment.

Fungal infection


The humid environment created by prolonged sweating encourages fungal infections, such as “athlete’s feet” or “tinea corporis”. Public showers and swimming pools are often hotbeds for the organisms that cause these infections. Personal hygiene is also important to prevent infection.

Fungal infections can cause irritating itching between the toes or in the crease of the groin. You can pick them up by directly touching the floor, shower room, and other wet surfaces that actually carry infection. Using the same towel throughout the week or sharing towels with other people may also be a factor.

If possible, you should have two or even three sets of training equipment so that you can always wash them with fresh water. If you only use one set of training suits, you should wash them regularly, at least twice a week, and let them dry overnight. If you are involved in managing children and adolescents, try to schedule regular washing of training suits or team suits to make them fresh at least once a week. The importance of fresh kits cannot be overemphasized.

In order to prevent athlete’s foot, please at least once a day, of course, after each training, wash your feet quickly with warm water instead of soaking in water to avoid foot pain. Dry gently, then wait a few minutes before putting on socks. Socks should also be changed daily. If you want your feet to dry out, you must use talcum powder, but remember that it is not a substitute for proper drying methods, especially between the toes. Nylon socks actually increase sweating, so choose wool or cotton fibers and use minimal synthetic fibers.

You can buy antifungal preparations from a chemist to treat an athlete’s foot or groin without a prescription. If there is no improvement after two weeks, consult a doctor. Spread a towel after taking a shower to prevent infection from spreading to others. Do not use the towel for other purposes.

Do not walk barefoot on surfaces used by others. Use another towel to dry the groin folds and keep the underwear clean and fresh.

Warts and corn


If you participate in activities such as swimming, karate, or judo barefoot, you are prone to foot warts. Warts always appear on the soles of your feet and feel like you are walking on small pebbles. Professional treatment by a doctor or chiropodist is required.

Corn is normal skin thickening caused by shoe friction (usually at pressure points). Treat it with lanolin and wipe it with an emery board (cardboard nail file).

Facial injuries


Our psychological and social well-being depends largely on our appearance, and people with scars on their faces may be insulted. You need to protect important areas such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth to avoid any injuries.

Cauliflower ear


This is common in fighting sports such as boxing and wrestling, and contact sports such as rugby. This is the result of bleeding from the skin of the ear due to a blow to the ear area. Use ice packs for first aid, but club doctors should see all such injuries as soon as possible. Club doctors will remove the hematoma and prevent its recurrence by applying pressure dressings or prescribing appropriate drugs.


Broken nose


This usually occurs after a hard blow, with or without nose deformation. Usually, when nasal cartilage dislocates from the bone, they cause deformity, although in some cases the bone itself can actually break. If the skin is cracked or visibly deformed, you need to go to the hospital as soon as possible. The nose can usually be pushed back into place under local anesthesia and will look normal afterward. In sports where the nose is often broken, these injuries will produce the classic picture of the “boxer nose”.

The bone fracture


You can feel this bone in front of your ears and through your face to your nose. It makes the middle of your face plump. When it ruptures, your face may become flat and there may be bloodstains on the white of your eyes. You may find it difficult to open your mouth, so you must talk through your teeth. Surgery must be performed to correct the deformity, so you must deal with accidents and emergencies.

Jaw fracture


Symptoms include jaw pain, you may have difficulty speaking or clenching your teeth, and notice blood in your saliva. You need to go to the hospital immediately because all jaw fractures require medical care. The lower jaw may have to be “connected”, ie fixed in place with the mouth closed, in order for the wound to heal. Remember to wear a mask during contact and sports, because this can avoid a lot of injuries.

Tooth injury


As long as you wear a suitably customized gas mask for any high-risk sports, these diseases can be prevented almost 100%. Ensure that children’s masks are regularly updated as they grow up. Ask your dentist about this service.

If the tooth is still attached to the gum, try to restore it to its original position with gentle pressure. If you have flushed it completely, try to push it back into the slot. If this is not possible, place it in the main population between the gums and lips. After completing this operation, the person should go directly to the dentist. If the teeth are replaced within an hour, you can save.


Do not loosen the teeth into the mouth of anyone who is not fully aware of it.


Eye injury


Eye injuries are very common than different types of injuries, and nearly 90% of them are preventable. About one-third of people are severe enough to require hospitalization. Unfortunately, such injuries mainly affect young people under the age of 25, including a large number of children, half of whom will permanently lose sight or the ability to focus properly.
High-risk activities include any sports involving missiles (balls, badminton) or rackets or sticks, combat sports such as karate, boxing, and contact sports such as rugby and rugby.

The most common serious different types of injuries are caused by a fist or ball hitting the eye directly. This presses the eyeball into its socket and causes potentially serious complications throughout the eye, including a rupture of the eyeball. The most obvious sign is dark eyes caused by bruises, but this is not harmful in itself. However, this may make checking the eyes more difficult. Otherwise, it may scratch the cornea, tear the iris, or dislocate the lens.
If you are in severe pain and feel discomfort and discomfort, it means that the pressure in your eyes is increasing (due to bleeding) and urgent medical help is needed.

Other misfortunes include torn eyelids, scratches on the cornea, grit or dust in the eyes. Wearing goggles can prevent inflammation of the cornea due to contact with chlorine in the swimming pool, and proper protection measures can prevent your eyes from becoming naked due to excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays, such as snow blindness for skiers and climbers.

All eye injuries & different types of injuries should be quickly assessed on the spot. If there is any pain, swelling, changes in vision, or changes in pupil shape, seek medical attention immediately. A&E employees can solve some simple problems, such as corneal abrasions and grit. More serious problems will attract the attention of ophthalmologists.


Injuries to shoulders, arms, and hands
Dislocated shoulder & different types of injuries


This was caused by falling down with an outstretched hand. The shoulders look deformed, the appearance is square, and the arms appear too long. The injured person supported his arm with his other hand. X-ray examination can confirm the diagnosis, and X-ray examination can also show any fractures near the dislocation.



•Reduction of dislocation (return) should be done in the hospital. This can be done under sedation, but general anesthesia is usually required.

• It may take 2-4 weeks for soft tissue to heal. After that, you can exercise your shoulders, but you should return to full exercise, especially contact exercises, with a delay of 2 to 3 months.

• In some cases, the actual dislocation of the shoulder or the feeling that the joint may be dislocated may become a recurring problem. This may seriously affect the patient’s outlook for exercise and needs to be evaluated by a plastic surgeon. The joint can be repaired under general anesthesia.


Clavicle fracture


This is caused by falling from an outstretched hand and is especially common among young people and children. There are usually obvious deformities and the skin may crack. The injured person supported the injured arm with his other hand.



•Slings or braces are usually used in hospitals to control this kind of injury.

Acromioclavicular joint injury


There is a small joint at the tip of the shoulder between the neck bone and the shoulder blade bone. Falling on the shoulder or outstretched arm may damage it during contact sports. There is tenderness and swelling in the affected area, and sometimes a step can be seen between the end of the neck bone and the shoulder itself.



• Injuries should be checked in the accident and emergency department. Usually, place your arms in a wide sling.

• Once the pain is relieved, the arms and shoulders can swing.

• In more severe cases, it may be necessary to repair the joint with screws and remove it after six weeks.

Rotator cuff injury


This is a medical term used to describe a group of soft tissue problems around the shoulder joint capsule. Exercises that require repeated head movements, such as bowling, swimming, tennis, etc., may cause inflammation and inflammation of the tendons and bursa around the shoulders. The over-arm movement becomes painful, which may seriously affect athletic performance. Acute shoulder myositis can cause the arm to separate from the body and cause rapid onset of pain. Rotating the arm can also be painful. Chronic shoulder tendinitis often affects weekend athletes. The pain gradually developed after several weeks. The shoulders may not be soft, but bending with the arms is still painful.



• In mild cases, place your arms in a wide sling for a few days,
Add regular anti-inflammatory drugs, that’s enough.

• In more severe cases, a mixture of local anesthetics and steroids injected into the shoulder joint may help.
• General practitioners can treat mild cases, but more severe cases are referred to hospital experts.



Pain on the outside of the elbow (especially when you are holding the racket) is called tennis elbow, and the area of ​​the outside elbow may also feel soft. This is a common overuse injury in racket sports, but it can be caused by any repetitive movement.



• Put on an ice pack and rest for a few days. Avoid moving your arm in a way that might cause injury.

• Use a supportive bandage or bandage on the muscles of the forearm.

• Take simple painkillers, such as aspirin or paracetamol (if you can tolerate it).

• Consider changing the size of the racket handle.

• If you still feel pain after a few days, please see a doctor. The doctor may give you local anesthetics and steroids.


Golfer’s elbow


This affects the inside of the elbow and is caused by strong stretching of the lateral ligaments and muscles. This is very common in golfers and rackets.



As for tennis

Wrist strength


This is caused by repetitive or unaccustomed use of the wrist and is common in racket sports. When the tendon moves, the wrist and the back of the thumb will feel pain and produce a crunching sensation.


• Apply the rice principle.
• If you do not have any troublesome side effects, anti-inflammatory drugs are usually helpful.

• Splints can reduce pain.

• Avoid repetitive actions that produce symptoms.

• If you break your wrist in the fall, be sure to have a doctor check it out to rule out fractures of the carpal ossicles (called the navicular bone) that are difficult to find. If the scaphoid bone fractures, there will be tenderness between the wrist and the base of the thumb, and pain when the thumb is pulled back. The scaphoid injury is diagnosed by X-ray, and the arm will be placed in a cast for six to twelve weeks.


Finger and thumb injuries


Strains, fractures, and dislocations are common; strains or tears of ligaments at the base of the thumb are particularly important. This injury can cause severe pain.


• Thumb injuries should always be treated in the hospital because if you cannot use your thumb, you will not be able to hold your fingers, and a sprained finger is painful but usually does not require medical advice.
• Fingers may be dislocated in contact sports such as rugby. If the skin is not damaged, you can straighten your fingers while reducing joint dislocation, so that the joint slips back into place. Try it only once, if it fails, send it to the hospital. If possible, tie the injured finger to the finger next to it (partner strapping) to relieve pain.

• A broken finger should also be seen in A&E. Usually only need to be fixed by a partner strap. However, it may be necessary to use a wire to keep more severe fractures in place and insert them under general anesthesia.

Injury of lower limb

Clicking hip


If you do a lot of stretching exercises, you may develop this condition: when you stand with your legs apart and stretched out, you will hear a loud hoarse sound, which is usually not painful. Hip hip joints are quite common and are caused by tight bands of muscles or tendons sliding outside the hip joint. If you do feel pain, see a doctor.

Tears of the adductor muscles


In over-enthusiastic stretching exercises or making football equipment, the inner thigh muscles may be torn. Sometimes, as the muscles shed tears, the bones will split. The injury is very painful, especially when stretching or tensing the muscles.



• Apply the RICE principle as soon as possible

• After the initial pain disappears, try to use the muscles gently in the stretching exercise, but always within the pain range.

• Take soluble aspirin or ibuprofen when injured, four hours a day on the first day to relieve pain.


Groin pain


This injury mainly affects people who participate in football, handball, ice hockey, skiing, track and field, and horse riding. Inguinal pain may be the result of overstretching of the thigh and abdominal tendons or tendon inflammation. The muscle arrangement in this area is complex, and many muscles are prone to pain from overuse. Unstable pelvic bones can also cause groin pain.
Usually, you will notice gradual pain in the groin, which will get worse after exercise. For example, when you cough or get up, it may cause difficulty kicking or injury.



• Relative rest.

• Take analgesics (pain relievers), such as soluble aspirin.

• Start demobilizing gently after a few days.

• Physiotherapy exercises.

• If the problem persists, you may need surgery to repair a torn muscle in the lower abdominal wall or even a small hernia.


Thigh injury

The thigh muscles (front quadriceps and back hamstrings) may bruise, usually after a direct hit, causing sudden pain, then deep pain, and sometimes significant swelling.



• Use the RICE principle and lie in bed for a day or two if necessary to make the swelling disappear.

• Do not massage the injured thigh, as this may cause complications (including abnormal bone formation) and delay healing.
• Carefully limit all activities for a few days after the injury to prevent complications.

• If you have a lot of swelling and severe pain, go to the emergency room to see a doctor within 24 hours after the injury.

Muscle strains and ruptures


Common direct blows are the usual causes: you may feel the sensation of a “dead leg”, tenderness in the injured area, and sometimes muscle gaps. When you try to tighten your muscles, it hurts. Or, you may have overused one or more muscles of your thigh or abdomen, and it is painful to move in certain ways.
Muscle strains that cause pain in the pubic area (adductor longus), inner thigh (ili muscle), front thigh (quadriceps), and upper or lower thigh (ham hamstring) are common.


• Apply the rice principle.

• Take simple painkillers.

• Once the pain is relieved, start the gentle exercise.

• If symptoms do not disappear after two or three days, see a doctor.
Since the scar tissue formed is not as soft as normal muscles, you may experience muscle strains repeatedly. In the case of all muscle injuries, adequate rest and gradual recovery training are essential, because rapid recovery may lead to relapse.

Make sure you don’t overwork. If the problem is serious, you may need to change your activities to reduce the strain on the same muscle.

Runner’s knee

This is a pain in the knee cap area caused when the knee cap repeatedly rubs the lower end of the thigh bone. When viewed through an arthroscope (a small observation device inserted under general anesthesia), the knee cap cartilage may be abnormal, but even if this is not the case, you may still feel pain. Women are more likely to have this problem than men. It is believed that the cause may be a slight misalignment of the knee joint and quadriceps, or a slight deformity in the way the legs move, which can only be found after training.
After a long period of training and/or sitting, you may feel pain and click behind the knee cap. Going down the stairs is also painful, and you may see a small swelling.


• Apply the rice principle.

•Strengthen the quadriceps: Sit upright, bend your knees 90 degrees, and then straighten your legs. You can tie a lighter weight to your feet for more intense exercise.

• Consider a well-balanced muscle retraining program.

• Avoid sitting straight with your knees bent for a long time; keep your knees moving.
• If none of the above methods help, you may need to ask an expert to decide whether surgery is needed. Arthroscopy is an examination of the extension of the knee joint, during which therapeutic surgery can be performed. Other forms of surgery include exposing the knee cap and making its lower surface smoother or realigning the knee cap so that it no longer rubs the lower end of the femur. The appeal of arthroscopy is that you can return to normal activities relatively quickly.


Knee ligament injury

The knee has four main ligaments: two in the joint (the cruciate ligament) and two on the sides of the knee (collateral ligament). Most injuries are caused by twisting actions (such as in football equipment) or direct blows. Minor sprains may cause tenderness inside or outside the knee joint. In a serious injury, the knee will “bend” the wrong way. Paradoxically, a complete tear is not as painful as a partial tear. When walking or running, especially when changing directions, the knee may feel unstable.


• Use the RICE protocol (see page 65) for first aid.
• If possible, ask the doctor to check the knee, as you may need surgery to draw blood from the joint or repair the ligament if it is unstable.

• After the operation, the knee will be placed in a plaster cast for four to six weeks, and then you will follow an exercise regimen that involves faster and faster running.


Knee muscles

Cartilage tear (meniscus injury)

Meniscal cartilage is two C-shaped wedges between the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (tibia) surfaces of the knee joint. They are attached to the tibia at the upper end of the tibia and are thought to act as a shock absorber and spread the joint fluid evenly. When torn, they may loosen inside the joint and interfere with its movement.
Football alone accounts for nearly 70% of meniscus injuries. The knee suddenly bends or locks up and cannot be straightened immediately.


•RICE regimen should be your first choice.

• If the knee is locked, swollen, persistently painful, or giving in, medical advice is needed. You will have an arthroscopy (see page 81), or repair the torn cartilage, or if the tear is too large, you can partially or completely remove it.

• The country currently does not use artificial cartilage.

Knee ligaments

Calf injury

The two bones of the calf are the tibia and fibula that bear the weight, and three groups of calf muscles are attached to the pillar-like bones. Two of the lower legs are the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which form a tendon that is inserted into the Achilles tendon, the Achilles tendon. These muscles provide an impetus for sprinting and jumping.
In the front of the leg, another set of muscles pulls the ankle up-when you move your feet up and down, you feel them tense and relaxed. The combined muscle action allows you to rotate your feet outward or inward.

Stress fracture


These are the different types of injuries of overuse. Stress fractures are fractures in the bones caused by stepping on the ground repeatedly. They can occur in many sports, including football and long-distance running. (They usually affect the lower limbs, but they can also occur in a golfer’s spine bones or even ribs!) The typical symptoms are pain caused by exercise and the softening of the fracture site.
Stress fractures can usually be diagnosed by X-rays after two to three weeks when signs of bone healing become obvious, or by bone scans at an early stage.


• If a weight-bearing bone fractures, rest is essential. Otherwise, just lower your activity level for about six to eight weeks, and you will usually restore health.

• Wait at least four more weeks before starting graded training. If an exercise causes any pain, be prepared to slow down.

Tibia splint


This condition is usually the result of repetitive exercise that causes inflammation of the tendons and muscles attached to the tibia, but the symptoms can also be the result of stress fractures or muscle swelling. You will feel pain in the front of your leg, usually from the midpoint of your tibia to the lower half of your ankle. It gradually increases, and eventually, you will feel pain during and after running or even walking.
You may have tight calves, cramps, or numbness in your feet. Novice training on rough roads or in the poor physical condition is particularly vulnerable.


• Apply the rice principle.

• Reduce your training plan to avoid pain.

• Always exercise on a soft surface, such as grass.

• Wear high-quality absorbent shoes.

• If you suspect that there is a problem with your running style, please consult an experienced coach.

• If all these measures fail seek medical advice.

Tibial compartment syndrome


This is a shin splint that affects the muscles in the front of the lower leg. They are located between the two bones of the tibia and fibula and are firmly wrapped in a tough fibrous tissue called the fascia.
Sometimes after strenuous exercise or even direct injury, this part of your leg swells, compressing the arteries that supply its blood. The symptoms are severe pain in the front of the leg, and sometimes you may feel numbness between the first and second toes.


• Stop exercising.

• Elevate limbs and apply RICE therapy.

• Go to a doctor because you may need surgery to relieve pressure on your legs.

• Untrained people may also experience this in a more chronic form. No emergency treatment is needed. You can usually change your training plan to relieve the pain. The effect is good, but if not, you may need surgery.

Achilles tendon


The Achilles tendon is a potential weak link for top athletes and middle-aged and elderly exercisers who often run on the road. The most common problems are rupture and tendinitis.


Achilles tendon rupture:


Older exercisers (after middle age) are the most vulnerable, but this problem affects young people, especially after impacting the tendons. The tendon becomes very painful and it may be difficult to stand up. A gentle examination will reveal a gap in the tendon.



• Must be done in the hospital. Surgery is an option, and if necessary, it must be performed as soon as possible. After about six weeks, you will put a cast on your leg.

• Another option is to simply put the legs on for a longer period of time (eight weeks) and then proceed with a longer rehabilitation program.

• During the wound healing period, you must walk with the heel raised to relax the tendons, and exercise to stretch and strengthen the calf muscles.
• No matter which form of treatment you receive, the results will be approximately the same after six to twelve months. The tendons will be as strong as before, and you should be able to use your legs normally. Although the Achilles tendon ruptured during training, one man still maintained the title of world karate champion.



This is inflammation of the Achilles tendon covered. It usually starts with a vague pain, and the pain gradually worsens until the entire tendon is swollen and very soft to the touch; you may also feel cracking when your feet move up and down.



• After applying to the RICE program, rest is essential.

• Wearing one to two centimeters of heel inside the shoe can relieve symptoms.

• You may need physical therapy.

• Anti-inflammatory drugs can help.

• In chronic cases, surgery must be performed.

• When different types of injuries symptoms are reduced, avoid applying pressure to the tendon. Run or walk on the grass as much as possible, instead of walking on hard ground, avoid hills, and continue to wear heels to lift.


Calf strain


This may be due to overuse or direct combat, although the elderly may have no obvious cause. Your calf will be painful and swollen, and you may feel a muscle gap.



• Apply the RICE principle immediately and continue for 48 hours.

• After the operation, start gentle stretching exercises within the painful range
48 hours.

• If you feel a muscle gap, consult a doctor




This mainly affects the legs, but you can exercise with any muscle group. This is a type of muscle pain or persistent cramps caused by excessive contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, sometimes because you are dehydrated or have a cold. Although the exact cause of cramps is not fully understood, it may be related to the accumulation of waste in the muscles. In addition to being very painful, the muscles are also tightly contracted.


• Stop any activities you are doing.

• If the cramp is on the inner side of the calf, gently stretch the muscle by pushing the sole of the foot upward while straightening the leg. This usually relaxes the muscles.

• Once the narrow muscles are released, they need to rest.


Foot problems and injuries

Blistering is caused by the shear forces usually associated with poor footwear or wrinkled socks.


• Use a sterile needle to suck the blister.

• Drain fluid.

• Cover the foam with tape or dressing to protect the foam and exercise.

Jogger’s toes

This is common in people who run long distances and can be very painful. It looks like a bruise under the toenails and is caused by inappropriate training shoes.


• Go to the doctor. The doctor may pierce the nail and drain blood.

Heel syndrome (plantar fasciitis, police heel)


Your heel and arch will be painful and may be very soft. X-rays will show heel spurs, usually related to an arch strain or so-called police heel. Whether the branch line itself is significant remains controversial. Plantar fasciitis is caused by poor instep support and repetitive activities (such as walking). These are all related to inappropriate or inappropriate shoes.


When the pain is severe:
• Apply the RICE principle within 48 hours.

• Find out the cause of the problem in order to eliminate the problem.

• Wear heel pads on shoes.
• Do stretching exercises to stretch the calf muscles and Achilles tendon.

• If there is no improvement, see a doctor. Injecting local anesthetics and steroids into the heel can cure this condition.

key point


♦The injury may be soft tissue (skin, muscle, tendon, nerve, ligament) or bone

♦Apply RICE principle in the treatment of soft tissue injury

♦ Cuts, lacerations, burns, infections, and suspected fractures may require treatment

♦In about 90% to 100% of cases, it can prevent eye and tooth injuries

♦Avoid using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) when muscles are injured. They may delay healing

♦Special treatment with platelet-rich plasma may accelerate healing

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