asthma causes

Asthma Causes

asthma causes

What is asthma?

Asthma Causes for long-term lung disease. It can inflame and narrow your airways and make breathing difficult. Severe asthma may cause difficulty in speaking or being active. You may hear doctors call it a chronic respiratory disease. Some people call asthma “bronchial asthma“.

Asthma is a serious disease that affects approximately 25 million Americans each year and causes nearly 2 million emergency room visits. After treatment, you can live well. Without it, you may have to go to the emergency room or stay in the hospital frequently, which may affect your daily life.

Symptoms of asthma
There are three main symptoms of asthma:

  • Airway obstruction.

When you breathe, as usual, the muscle bands around the airway will relax and the air will move freely. However, when you have asthma, your muscles will tighten. The air is difficult to pass.

  • inflammation.

Asthma can make your lungs and bronchial tubes red and swollen. This inflammation can damage your lungs. In the long run, treating the disease is the key to controlling asthma.

  • The airway is irritable.

Asthma patients have sensitive airways and tend to overreact and narrow when exposed to mild triggers.

These problems may cause the following symptoms:

  • Cough, especially in the evening or morning
  • Gasping, howling when breathing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness, pain, or pressure
  • Unable to sleep due to difficulty breathing
  • When to see the doctor

If you have the following severe symptoms, please seek medical help immediately:

  • Fast breathing
  • Pale or blue, lips or nails
  • When breathing, the skin around the ribs pulls inward
  • Difficulty breathing, walking, or speaking
  • Symptoms did not improve after taking the medicine

What is an asthma attack?

An asthma attack is when your symptoms suddenly worsen. Your airway becomes tight, swollen, or full of mucus.

Not everyone with asthma has the same symptoms as an asthma attack. You may have different people at different times. They may be less obvious, such as less energy. Between one attack and another, they can range from mild to severe.

How is asthma classified?

Doctors grade the severity of asthma by its symptoms:

Mild symptoms are less than twice a week. Nocturnal symptoms are less than twice a month. Asthma attacks are rare.

  • Mild persistent asthma.

Symptoms appear three to six times a week. Nocturnal symptoms occur three to four times a month. An asthma attack may affect activity.

  • Moderate persistent asthma.

Symptoms appear three to six times a week. Nocturnal symptoms occur three to four times a month. An asthma attack may affect activity.

  • Severe persistent asthma.

Symptoms persist throughout the day and night. You must limit your activities.

Your asthma may get worse if:

  1. You have symptoms more often, and they can interfere with your daily life.
  2. You have trouble breathing. You can use a device called a peak flow meter to measure.
  3. You need to use quick-acting inhalers more often.

Types of asthma

There are several:

Asthma can start at any age, but it is more common in people under 40.
Asthma status.

With bronchodilators, these persistent asthma attacks will not go away. This is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment.

The symptoms of the same child may vary from episode to episode. Pay attention to the following issues:

  • Cough often, especially during games, at night, or when laughing. This may be the only symptom.
  • Reduce energy or breathe when breathing is paused
  • Fast or shallow breathing
  • Say that their chest is injured or feels tight
  • Howling they make when they call in or out
  • Seesaw exercise on the chest due to breathing difficulties
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tight neck and chest muscles
  • Weakness or fatigue

 

You may hear asthma caused by this exercise. It occurs during physical activity, that is, the air you breathe is drier than the air in your body, and your airways become narrower. It can also affect people without asthma. You will notice symptoms within a few minutes after you start exercising, and these symptoms may last for 10 to 15 minutes after you stop exercising.

Things that can cause allergies, such as dust, pollen, and pet dander, can also cause asthma attacks.
Non-allergic asthma. This type will flare in extreme weather. It may be the high temperature in summer or the cold in winter. It will also show up when you feel stressed or have a cold.
Occupational asthma. This usually affects people who produce chemical fumes, dust, or other irritating substances in the air.

This severe form is characterized by high levels of white blood cells called eosinophils. It usually affects adults between 35 and 50 years old.

Your asthma symptoms get worse at night.

When taking aspirin, symptoms of asthma, runny nose, sneezing, sinus pressure, and coughing can occur.

Unlike other types of asthma, the only symptom of this type of asthma is a long-term cough.

Causes and triggers of asthma

When you have asthma, your respiratory tract reacts to the world around you. Doctors call these triggers for asthma. They may cause symptoms or make them worse. Common triggers for asthma include:

  • Infections such as sinusitis, colds, and flu
  • Allergens such as pollen, mold, pet dander, and dust mites
  • An irritant, such as a strong smell from perfume or detergent
  • Air pollution
  • smoke
  • exercise
  • Cold air or weather changes, such as temperature or humidity
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Strong emotions, such as anxiety, laughter, sadness, or stress
  • Aspirin and other drugs
  • Food preservatives called sulfites, found in shrimp, pickles, beer and wine, dried fruits, and bottled lemon
  • juice and lime juice

Risk factors for asthma

 

Things that may make you more susceptible to asthma include:

  • Things around before birth or growing up
  • Do your parents have asthma, especially your mother
  • Your genes
  • Your race. Asthma is more common among people of African American or Puerto Rican descent.
  • Your sex. Boys are more likely to suffer from asthma than girls. Among teenagers and adults, women are
  • more common.
  • Your job
  • Other conditions, such as lung infections, allergies or obesity

Asthma diagnosis

If you think you have asthma, see a doctor. They will refer you to an asthma specialist, also called a pulmonologist.

The doctor will start with a physical examination and ask about your symptoms and medical history.

 

You will take tests to see how your lungs are working, including:

  • Spirometry.

This simple breath test can measure how much air you blow out and how fast.

  • Peak flow.

These can measure how well your lungs are expelling air. They are not as accurate as spirometry, but even before you feel any symptoms, they may be a good way to test your lungs at home. Peak flow meters can help you figure out what makes asthma worse, whether your treatment is effective, and when you need first aid.

  • Metcholine challenge.

Adults are more likely to receive this test than children. If your symptoms and spirometry do not clearly show asthma, you may get it. During this test, you should inhale a chemical called formylcholine before and after spirometry to see if it narrows your airway. If your results drop by at least 20%, you have asthma. At the end of the test, your doctor will give you medicine to reverse the effects of methacholine.

  • Exhaled nitric oxide test.

You inhale your breath into a pipe connected to the machine, which can measure the amount of nitric oxide in your breath. Your body usually produces this gas, but if your respiratory tract becomes inflamed, its level may be high.

Other tests you may get include:

 

  • Chest X-ray.

This is not an asthma test, but your doctor can use it to ensure that no other factors are causing your symptoms. X-rays are images of the interior of the human body made by low-dose radiation.

  • CT.

This test takes a series of X-rays and puts them together to see your inside. Scanning the lungs and sinuses can detect physical problems or diseases (such as infections) that can cause or worsen breathing problems.

  • Allergy test.

These can be blood or skin tests. They tell you if you are allergic to pets, dust, mold, and pollen. Once the triggers of allergies are known, they can be treated to prevent them and asthma attacks.

  • Sputum eosinophils.

This test looks for high levels of white blood cells (eosinophils) in the mixture of saliva and mucus (phlegm) that appears when you cough.

Asthma treatment

Many asthma treatments can relieve your symptoms. Your doctor will work with you to develop an asthma action plan outlining your treatment and medications. They may include:

 

  • Inhaled corticosteroids.

These drugs can treat asthma for a long time. This means you will take them every day to control asthma. They can prevent and relieve swelling in the airways and can help your body reduce mucus production. You will use a device called an inhaler to inhale medicine into your lungs. Commonly inhaled corticosteroids include:

  1. Beclomethasone (QVAR)
  2. Budesonide (Pulmic)
  3. Fluticasone (Flovent)
  • Leukotriene modifier.

These drugs are another long-term asthma treatment that can block leukotrienes, which are substances in the body that trigger asthma attacks. You take them as pills every day. Common leukotriene modifiers include:

  1. Montelukast (Singapore)
  2. Zalukast (acetate)

 

  • Long-acting beta-agonist.

These drugs can relax the muscle bands around the airways. You may hear them called bronchodilators. Even if you have no symptoms, use an inhaler to take these medicines. They include:

  1. Formoterol (Foradil)
  2. Salmeterol (Serevent)

 

  • Combination inhaler.

The device can provide you with inhaled glucocorticoids and long-acting beta-agonists to relieve your asthma. Common ones include:

  1. Budesonide and formoterol (Symbicort)
  2. Fluticasone and Salmeterol (Advair Diskus)
  3. Fluticasone and vilanterol (Breo)
  4. Mometasone and Formoterol (Du Leila)
  • Theophylline.

It can open your airways and relieve tightness in your chest. You can take this long-term medication by yourself or with inhaled corticosteroids.

  • Short-acting beta-agonist.

These are called rescue drugs or rescue inhalers. They relax the muscle bands around the airways and relieve symptoms. Examples include:

  1. Albuterol (Accuneb, ProAir, Proventil, Ventolin)
  2. Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA)

These bronchodilators prevent the muscles around the airways from tightening. Common ones include:

  1. Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)
  2. Tiotropium Bromide (Spiriva)

You can get ipratropium in an inhaler or use it as a solution in a nebulizer, which is a device that converts liquid medicine into a mist and inhales it through a mouthpiece. Tiotropium has a dry inhaler that allows you to inhale the medicine as a dry powder.

  • Oral and intravenous corticosteroids.

In the event of an asthma attack, you need to use them with an emergency inhaler. They can relieve swelling and inflammation of the airways. You will take oral steroids in a short period of 5 days to 2 weeks. Common oral steroids include:

  1. Methylprednisolone (Medrol)
  2. Prednisolone (Opred, Pediapred, Prelone)
  3. Prednisone (Deltasone)

If you are hospitalized with a severe asthma attack, you are more likely to inject the steroid directly into a vein. This will allow the drug to enter your system faster.

If you have severe asthma and do not respond to control medications, you can try the following biological agents:
Omalizumab (Xolair) treats asthma caused by allergens. You can get it once every 2 to 4 weeks.
Other biological agents can prevent immune cells from producing substances that cause inflammation. These drugs include:

  1. Benazizumab (Fasenra)
  2. Mepilizumab (Nucala)
  3. Relizumab (Cinqair)

Home remedies

Medication may be the key to controlling asthma, but there are things you can do at home to help yourself.

  1. Avoid asthma triggers.
  2. Exercise regularly.
  3. Maintain a healthy weight.
  4. Be aware of conditions that may cause symptoms, such as GERD.
  5. Do breathing exercises to relieve symptoms, so you need to reduce medication.
  6. Some people use complementary therapies, such as yoga, acupuncture, biofeedback, or vitamin C supplementation and Dingchuan Decoction. Please consult your doctor before trying any of these.

Asthma complications

If uncontrolled, asthma can cause problems in your daily life, such as:

  1. fatigue
  2. Lack of exercise and weight gain
  3. Hospital or emergency visits
  4. Lack of work
  5. School time or time to focus on homework
  6. Mental health problems such as stress, anxiety, and depression

Asthma can also cause serious medical conditions, including:

  • Pneumonia and other common complications, such as flu
  • Early delivery or pregnancy
  • Permanent narrowing of the bronchi in the lungs
  • Lung collapse
  • respiratory failure
  • Prevent asthma attacks

Your action plan will include a variety of ways to control asthma and prevent attacks. These may include:

  • Know the triggers and stay away from them.
  • Take asthma medication as directed by your doctor. If you find that you often use quick-acting inhalers, please let them know.
  • Keep track of your condition and understand the signs that it may get worse. Peak flow meters can help.
  • If you think your asthma is getting worse, please know what to do.
  • Discuss vaccines with your doctor to reduce the chance of certain conditions. You may be vaccinated for flu, pneumonia, shingles, or whooping cough (pertussis).
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